A Tiny Handbook of R by Mike Allerhand (auth.)

By Mike Allerhand (auth.)

This short presents a roadmap for the R language and programming atmosphere with signposts to additional assets and documentation.

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In long format a time-varying variable is a single column containing all the subjects measures of that variable at all time-points. The data frame must then also have factors to indicate which subject and which time-point each measure belongs to. In wide format a time-varying variable is spread over several columns, one for each time-point. In that case it is clear which subject and time-point each measure 34 2 Data Structures belongs to from its location in the data frame. However the data must be balanced in the sense that all subjects have a complete set of measures at all time-points, otherwise it is necessary to pad the data with missing values to preserve the rectangular shape of the data frame.

In the formula the frequency variable is specified on the left side of the tilde, and the grouping factors separated by + signs are specified on the right. Alternatively a . on the right side can be used to specify all the variables in the data frame except the frequency variable denoted on the left side. The left side of the formula can be empty, in which case the frequency of each cell is assumed to be 1. 6 The main purpose of having a separate class "table" is to enable the generic summary function to select a method to carry out a chi-squared test for independence of factors, given a table object.

SinkðÞ # . ftable for flat tables created by ftable. 11 9 Function abind is in package abind, and is designed to combine arrays. If arrays are combined using c it strips the dim and dimnames attributes which are required by ftable. txt file opens in Notepad. csv file opens in MS Excel. 11 See: help(Sweave). 2 Graphs The original R graphics package is referred to as ‘‘base graphics’’. Other graphics packages include lattice and ggplot2. 1 Base Graphics The concept of the base graphics functions is for successive functions to add graphics and build plots up.

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