By John M. Keegan
A Reference Grammar of Mbay offers a great advent to the grammars of Mbay, a Central-Sudanic languuge of the Sara relations defined in a Dictionary of Mbay through an analogous writer. it truly is in accordance with broad box study one of the Mbay in Chad in the course of the interval facts for the dictionary used to be gathered. The grammar is diveded into 8 sections. the 1st 5 describe the phonology and morphology. First. segmental phonology is defined, and a radical clarification and justification of the writing approach is equipped, by way of an outline of tone and vowel size. the second one part treats morpheme constitution, with emphasis at the canonical and harmonic constraints which restrict the form of Mbay morphemes. The inflectional paradigms are defined within the 3rd part, and this is often within the fourth through a proof of the phonological switch linked to inflection, with emphasis on an outline of the different sorts of tonal swap. part 5 treats the restricted note formation tactics present in the language. part six via 8 deal with Mbay syntax. part six describes the constitution and makes use of of the several different types and subcategories, and comprises descriptions of alienable/inalienable nouns, verb element, serial verbs, adjectival makes use of of verbs and nouns, and many of the makes use of of ideophones, specifiers and compleentizers. part seven offers with note order, describing sentence order in addition to the constitution of the noun, verb and prepositional word. integrated during this part are a couple of precise constructions and expressions. in most cases, the outline contained in those sections makes an attempt to be vast in scope, and comprises explanatations of the way to precise universal recommendations (e.g. lifestyles, impersonal expression, comparability, superlative, etx.) in addition to fascinating elements of Mbay syntax which go beyond person different types (eg. the concept of 'standing/ sitting/lying').
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Additional info for A reference grammar of Mbay
NELS Vol 17, 330–344. Paradis, C. and Prunet , J-F. 1990. Coronal or velar placeless consonants? Proceedings of West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics 9, 427–441. Paradis , C. and Prunet J-F eds 1991. Phonetics and phonology. The special status of coronals: internal and external evidence. London: Academic Press. Sagey, E. 1986. The representation of features and relations in non-linear phonology. PhD disseration MIT. Schane, S. A. 1984a. The fundamentals of particle phonology. Phonology Yearbook 1, 129–155.
For similar reasons no laryngeally modifie vowels occur. This On non-occurring structures 47 would entail the conjunction of an obstruent manner component to a vowel structure. 16 Furthermore, it was argued in Ladefoged (1971) that such modifie vowels would be obstruentalised and no longer be sonorant .
In Harris’ synchronic account of r-vocalisation, he equates the appearance of schwa in words such as beer with the vocalic component of the consonantal r. However, this is quite different from the proposal being made here where the appearance of the schwa is tied directly to the coronal place representative. On Harris’ account the schwa is distinct from the coronal element. 19. I adopt Howell’s diacritic to represent vowel lowering here. 20. Hayward and Hayward (1989) equate the class of Gutturals with low vowels and vowel lowering.