A Brief Introduction to the Semitic Languages (Gorgias by Aaron D. Rubin

By Aaron D. Rubin

With a written heritage of approximately 5 thousand years, the Semitic languages contain one of many global s earliest attested and longest attested households. popular family members comprise Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Amharic, and Akkadian. This quantity presents an summary of this crucial language family members, together with either historical and smooth languages. After a short creation to the background of the family members and its inner category, next chapters disguise issues in phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon.Each bankruptcy describes beneficial properties which are attribute of the Semitic language kin as a complete, in addition to a number of the extra impressive advancements that occur within the person languages. this offers either a typological evaluation and an outline of extra precise positive aspects. The chapters comprise plentiful examples from various languages. all of the examples comprise morpheme through morpheme glosses, in addition to translations, which help in making those examples transparent and obtainable even to these no longer acquainted with a given language. Concluding the booklet is a close consultant to additional interpreting, which directs the reader to an important reference instruments and secondary literature, and an up to date bibliography.This short advent includes a wealthy number of facts, and covers themes no longer ordinarily present in brief sketches corresponding to this. The readability of presentation makes it necessary not just to these within the box of Semitic linguistics, but in addition to the overall linguist or language fanatic who needs to profit whatever approximately this crucial language kinfolk.

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The most com mon of these is the prefixed particle *wa- (in some languages real ized as wo- or u-), which is found in nearly all Semitic languag es, with the notable exceptIOn of som e modern Ethiopian languag es (69). In a few South Ethiopi an languages, -wa has become suffi xed (70 ). Chadian Arabic (69) al-gitt wa-l-jidad the-cat and-the-chickens 'the cat and the chickens' (Jul lien de Pommerol 1999) Zay (70) bok'olu-wa Jiiriiz ldm bUra mule-and horse cow ox 'a mule, a horse, a cow, and an ox' (Leslau 1999) The enclitic coordinating par ticle *-ma is known from Ak­ .

In the Jewish NENA dialect of Arbel (36), but not in the Christian NENA dialect of Qaraqosh. SG 'Send! ' (35) Iii taSappar NEG send:NONPAST. ' (Khan 1999) (Huehnergard 1983; Testen 1993); cf. Akkadian illik 'he went' and I-illik 'let him go, may he go'. 3), but the form itself survived in its jussive function. This is most evident in Modern South Arabian and in Ethiopian Semitic; cf. Ge'ez nabara 'he sat' and jussive y,nbar 'let him sit, may he sit'. , Central Se­ mitic, is slightly more complex.

For example, a num­ In some languages, there is a special negative existential parti­ cle, for example, Biblical Hebrew len 'there is/are not' (vs. yes In many of the languages that normally do not express a copula in the present tense, a demonstrative or personal pro­ noun can fill the spot of a copula, in order to make clear that a separate subject and predicate are being expressed (78-79). ' (Coffin and Bolozky 2005) A number of modern languages, including modern Ethio­ pian languages, Neo-Aramaic languages, and some Arabic dia­ lects, have developed present-tense copulas, most often from grammaticalized demonstratives or presentative particles (Rubin 2005).

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